Perceptions of Youth with Disabilities in Bhutan on Family Support, Attitudes, and Encouragement towards Meaningful Community Engagement: Implications for Parental Self-Efficacy
Keywords:Bhutan, Family, Attitudes, Support, Self-Efficacy, Disability, Inclusion
AbstractPurpose: Awareness and attention towards disability-inclusion in Bhutan has steadily increased over the last few years. However, there are still many challenges that remain to support meaningful employment and community engagement for youth with disabilities such as inequity, discrimination, stigma, inaccessible physical environments, and bullying that seems to impact the self-efficacy of the youth with disabilities themselves. In this article, we explore how youth with disabilities in Bhutan perceive their family’s level of support, attitudes, and encouragement in order to explore the implications of parental self-efficacy. Method: This article reports the perceptions of youth with disabilities (n = 216; Male = 127 & Female = 87) about family attitudes, support systems, and family encouragement towards their employment and the role of parental self-efficacy beliefs. The participants for the national level survey were recruited through purposeful and snowball sampling procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Findings from this study suggest that youth with disabilities were supported and encouraged to contribute to the family livelihood within the home, but less so out in the community, indicating lower parental self-efficacy beliefs about their child with a disability’s capabilities to contribute in the community and their own ability to facilitate and ensure that contribution. Conclusion: Negative family attitude and lower self-efficacy – and, equally, the youth with a disability’s perception of their negative family attitudes and low self-efficacy – can be detrimental as it limits the ability of persons with disabilities to fulfil and achieve their life goals. This article recommends further research into the self-efficacy beliefs of the parents themselves, as well as further engagement, awareness, and training for parents to support their efforts to support their child with a disability to engage in meaningful employment and community activities.
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